A lathe machine is a machine tool which is used to remove metals from a workpiece to give a desired shape and size.
In other words it is a machine that is used to hold the workpiece to perform various metal removing operations. David Wilkinson (January 5, 1771 – February 3, 1852) was a U.S. mechanical engineer who invented a lathe for cutting screw threads, which was extremely important in the development of the machine tool industry in the early 19th century. A lathe machine perform various metal removing operations such as
(1) Turning (2) Facing (3) Boring (4) Threading ( 5) Tapping (6) Taper Cutting (7) Knurling (8) Gear Cutting
Manual steering is the steering system where steering is connected to a rod that turns the wheels as per the steering direction. This is called as Rack and pinion steering. Rack means rod and pinion means gear. A gear is attached to the steering rod. When the driver turn the steering wheel, it turns the gear in circular motion and then moves the steering rod which can be seen behind the clutch, brake and accelerator pedal. Here the rotational motion of steering wheels is converting into linear motion. This linear motion turns the wheels. Hence the steering is heavy one the car is idle and as soon as the tires start moving the kinetic energy reduces the weight of steering. Higher the speed lighter the steering.
Power steering is a system which helps to steer the wheels with some source of power other than the drivers manual force with which he turns the steering. This feature adds to the comfort while driving as less effort is needed to turn the steering by the driver. Power Steering is specially important for the cars which have engine in front and there is a lot of weight on the front wheels.
For rear engine cars like Tata Nano or light weight cars like Maruti 800, its ok to have no power steering and still drive comfortably because of low weight on the front wheels. But for heavy cars and also as a luxury feature power steering provides lots of ease.
Hydraulic power steering uses high pressure fluids for assisting the steering movement. It uses a plunger type arrangement for its working. When the driver turns the steering wheel, it opens up the flow or pressurized fluid in such a way that helps to turns the wheels in the required direction.
Electric power steering works with the help of an Electric Motor and a control unit which has some sensors. The motor runs on battery and will use electric power to assist the movement of steering when the driver turns the wheel.
Hydraulic power steering is a primitive technology used for decades and has improved a lot with time. Earlier, it did not have any difference in steering response with speed of the car, but the new age of hydraulic power steering are speed sensitive and work better than the older hydraulic power steering.
Electric power steering are comparatively new technology with less complicated build and mechanism, takes less space and are more durable. Electric power steering use sensors to sense the car speed and will take care of the different steering response required for different speeds.